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What is Osmosis?
Osmosis is based upon the fundamental pursuit for balance. Two fluids containing different concentrations of dissolved solids that come in contact with each other will mix until the concentration is uniform. When these two fluids are separated by a semi permeable membrane (which lets the fluid flow through, while dissolved solids stay behind), the fluid containing the lower concentration will move through the membrane into the fluid containing the higher concentration of dissolved solids (Binnie e.a., 2002). After a while the water level will be higher on one side of the membrane. The difference in height is called the osmotic pressure.
What is Reverse Osmosis?
By applying a pressure that exceeds the osmotic pressure, the reverse effect occurs. Fluids are pressed back through the membrane, while dissolved solids stay behind.
To purify water by Reverse Osmosis membrane, the natural osmosis effect must be reversed. In order to force the water of the brine stream (high salt concentration) to flow towards the fresh stream (low salt concentration), the water must be pressurized at an operating pressure greater than the osmotic pressure. As a result, the brine side will get more concentrated.
The operating pressure of seawater is around 60 bar.
1. Water flows from a column with a low dissolved solids content to a column with a high dissolved solids content
2. Osmotic pressure is the pressure that is used to stop the water from flowing through the membrane, in order to create balance
3. By pursuing pressure that exceeds the osmotic pressure, the water flow will be reversed; water flows from the column with a high dissolved solids content to the column with a low dissolved solids content
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RO Membrane Cleaning
Reverse Osmosis membranes and other membrane systems need periodic cleaning and servicing. For optimal performance specific chemicals are required, depending on the cause of the pollution.
Scaling is concerned with the seclusion of suspended inorganic particles, such as calcium carbonate, barium sulfate and iron compounds.
Fouling is concerned with the seclusion of organic, colloidal and suspended particles. Bacteria and other microorganisms that decompose these particles will create substrates. As a consequence they will grow and develop further.
The processes that are mentioned above will cause a decrease in capacity and/or an increase of the pressure and, as a result, of the energy use.
It is very important to purify the membrane preventively. In many cases regular mild cleaning is better than cleaning periodically with an aggressive cleaning product. The membrane will than last longer.
Calcium carbonate scaling
|Mainly occuring in hard water
Use our anti-scalant
|Growth of micro organisms on the membrane
Apply our disinfectant
|Removal of iron containing deposits
Treat with our removal chemical
|Oil and organic deposits
Efficient treatment with our cleaning aid
Sea water desalination
Nowadays, desalination* has become a very affordable solution to cope with fresh water shortage typically in tropical as well as of off-shore areas.
The desalination core process is based on Reverse Osmosis Membrane technology, but stand alone, it doesn't provide safe drinking water, nor does it guarantee an efficient plant.
The pretreatment includes all the necessary treatment step ahead of the reverse osmosis plant. It is determining for plant life time and to minimise chemical cleaning and membrane replacement. It has a direct impact on the plant performance.
There are as many membrane types as applications. They range from "high rejection" to "ultra low energy" or " high boron rejection".
The reverse osmosis process can also be build with one or two passes, depending on the product water requirements and the seawater salinity and temperature. In most cases, 1 pass is sufficient to reach the EU drinking water standards, specially regarding the boron content (1 mg/L). To reach WHO boron guideline (0.5mg/L), a second pass might be necessary (Boron removal process)
The energy recovery device is the key factor that determines the plant electrical costs. It must be chosen carefully based on the local energy costs and environment policies.
Post-treatment and/or polishing steps are required to condition the water after the reverse osmosis membrane process to make it suitable to your application.
All essential process steps in desalination plants
Bottle Water Filling Line
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Mobile Water Reverse Osmosis
Innogreen’s mobile water units are a flexible way to respond to a wide range of reverse osmosis user requirements, from small camp sites to the needs of entire communities.
Manufactured by ISO 9001 quality standards, Innogreen offers two types of mobile reverse osmosis technology:
Innogreen’s mobile reverse osmosis (RO) units provide an emergency, interval, or long-term solution to meet your specific requirements for a variety of water end uses, including pure drinking water.
Innogreen’s single and double pass reverse osmosis systems are capable of treating up 1000 cubic metres per day per unit container with typical rejection rates of 95- 99%.
Containers can be connected together to form multiple 1000 cubic metre per day water systems
Our mobile RO systems do not only remove dissolved ions, but also reduce bacteria, pyrogens, organics, particles, colloids, colour and oxidizing agents and purify the water end product of up to 99.9%, nominal to feed water quality.
Innogreen’s mobile reverse osmosis units contain the necessary hardware to monitor the system operation including, inlet and permeate conductivity, inlet pH, inlet ORP meters, concentrate and permeate flow meters, and pre-filter, post filter, primary, final, and inter-bank pressure transmitters.
The data is continuously monitored to ensure that each mobile RO unit operates optimally. Innogreen mobile RO units also contain the necessary chemical pumps essential in order to meet the required water quality specifications of our clients.
Advantages of Mobile SWRO and BWRO Units
- • Up to 1000 cubic metres per day per unit in single-pass mode or up to 500 cubic metres per day in two pass mod
- • Ability to combine the mobile reverse osmosis unit with other mobile water products to enhance system capabilities
- • Containers can be conveniently interlocked to form large treatment plants of multiple 1000 cubic metres capacity
- • Typical rejection rates of 95-99%. The average rejection rate is dependent on influent TDS, ionic composition, as well as continuous maintenance
- • Our Field Service Technicians/Engineers operate the mobile reverse osmosis units
- • Mobile SWRO and BWRO are the ideal solution for a variety of emergency, interval, and long-term water end usages